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The Barton name
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*Bernard Barton the Quaker Poet Correspondence
*Billy Barton Diary and Letters
*Cecil Barton Mountaineering Journals
*Emily Dougan's 1856 Sketchbook
*John Barton the Elder Correspondence
*Memoirs of Emily Elliott
*Memoirs of John Barton
*Nicolson et al 1777
*Ronald Barton Diary and Letters
Barton (hamlet & parish)
Bernard Barton of Carlisle (1728-1773)
Bernard Barton the Quaker poet (1784-1849)
Charles Elliott (1776-1856)
Charles Elliott the cabinet-maker (1752-1832)
Col. John Edward Broadbent (1845-1931)
Emily Elliott (1839-1924)
Esther Broadbent (1873-1959)
High Head Chapel
Ive Bank, Ivegill
John Barton (d.1720)
John Barton of Ivegill (d.1747)
John Barton Senior (1789-1852)
John Barton the Elder (1754-1789)
John Dougan (1765-1826)
Parishes of Cumberland and Westmorland
Rev. Cecil Barton (1870-1909)
Rev. Charles Boileau Elliott (1803-1875)
Rev. John Barton of Cambridge (1836-1908)
Ronald Barton (1901-1986)
Solomon Boileau (1745-1810)
Thomas Dougan (d.1797)
Thomas Dougan (d.1797)
's great x5 grandfather.
May be the man who owned a sugar & coffee plantation called 'Profit' in
the same man, he was a slave-owner who treated his slaves exceptionally well, according to
John Dougan (1765-1826)
devoted his later years to abolishing slavery
St George's Cathedral, Georgetown, Guyana
View Larger Map
"Consistent with the freedom, and impartiality I have always observed in offering you my 'notes,' I am extremely happy to be able to relieve you from this painful scene, by presenting to you one of a very opposite nature — one in which I am sure every feeling of your heart will warmly participate. A party of recently arrived Europeans went by invitation to dine at "Arcadia'-— the plantation of a Mr. Osborn, about eight miles from Stabroek.
[Stabroek was renamed
King George III
- in 1812]
Five slaves were sent, with a handsome covered boat to fetch us, in which we had a most pleasant sail, about six miles up the river, and then, coming into a canal, which led to the estate, we were drawn about two miles further, by the negroes running at the side of the canal, singing all the way, and pulling, in merry tune, together.
[There is to this day a village called 'Mocha Arcadia', about 5 miles south of Georgetown - as the crow flies - which is surely the location of this plantation.]
On our arrival at Mr. Osborn's, we were presented with wine, fruits, and various refreshments; and, afterwards, were amused till dinner-time in viewing the coffee plantation, the negro yard, and the different premises. At dinner we shared all the good things of the colony, and, in the afternoon, were conducted across the canal to visit the estate, and happy home of
, a neighbour whom Mr. Osborn had invited to meet us. — Here we found a rich sugar plantation bordered with coffee and fruits. Leading to the sugar fields, were fine rows of fruit trees, laden with oranges,
-- the shaddocks and forbidden fruit very superior to any I had before tasted, indeed so exquisite, that perhaps I might say they were the finest species of the two finest fruits produced in the whole garden of nature.
I cannot express to you how much we were gratified — how peculiarly we were delighted with all we saw at this happy abode of Mr. Dougan. The plantation is laid out with much taste, and having every advantage of culture, it exhibits, in high perfection, all the luxuriancy of a rich tropical estate. Utility, pleasure, and convenience, are here most happily combined. A private canal leads through the middle of the grounds, and serves, at once, for ornament and pleasure, as well as for bringing home the copious harvests of coffee and sugar.
[Extrapolating from the position of Mocha Arcadia, the location of Dougan's plantation was probably in the region labelled LaGrange in the map above.]
At its sides are smooth walks of grass; and between these and the sugar canes are borders planted with all the choice tropical fruits, rendering a promenade upon the water, or its banks, moft fragrant and inviting, and offering to the eye and the palate all the variety of oranges, shaddocks, limes, lemons, cherries, custard apples, cashew apples, avagata pears, grenadilloes, water-lemons, mangoes, and pines. The other walks, which traverse the plantation, are also cool and fragrant avenues of fruit trees.
But however great the richness, beauty, and fragrance of the estate, its canals, and its walks, still I am sensible that I shall more firmly secure your attachment to it, by mentioning the simple fact that, to slavery, it affords... a happy home!
I know not whether, upon any occasion, since my departure from England, I have experienced such true and heart-felt pleasure as in witnessing the high degree of comfort and happiness enjoyed by the slaves of 'Profit.' Mr. Dcugan not only grants them many little indulgences, and studies to make them happy, but he generously fosters them with a father's care; and they, sensible of his tenderness towards them, look to their revered master as a kind and affectionate parent; and with undivided—unsophisticated attachment cheerfully devote, to him, their labour and their lives.
Not satisfied with bestowing upon his slaves mere food and raiment, Mr. Dougan establishes for them a kind of right. He assures to them certain property, endeavors to excite feelings of emulation among them, and to inspire them with a spirit of neatness and order, not commonly known among slaves: and I am happy to add that the effects of his friendly attentions, towards them, are strongly manifested in their persons, their dwellings, and their general demeanour. — Perhaps it were not too much to say, that the negro yard at 'Profit' forms one of the happiest villages within the wide circle of the
globe! The labouring poor of Europe can attain to no state at all adequate to such slavery, for had they equal comforts, still could they never be equally free from care.
The slaves of Mr. Dougan are not only fed, and clothed, and tenderly watched in sickness, without any personal thought, or concern, but each has his appropriate spot of ground, and his cottage, in which he feels a right as sacred as if secured to him by all the seals and parchments of the Lord High Chancellor of England, and his court.
Happy and contented, the slave of 'Profit' sees all his wants supplied. Having never been in a state of freedom, he has no desire for it. Not having known liberty, he feels not the privation of it; nor is it within the powers of his mind either to conceive or comprehend the sense we attach to the term. Were freedom offered to him he would refuse to accept it, and would only view it as a state fraught with certain difficulties and vexations, but offering no commensurate good. "Who gib
me for gnyhaam Massa," he asks "if me free?" "Who gib me clothes!" "Who send me doctor when me sick?"
With industry a slave has no acquaintance, nor has he any knowledge of the kind of comfort and independence which derive
from it. Ambition has not taught him that, in freedom, he might escape from poverty — nor has he any conception that by improving his intellect he might become of higher importance in the scale of humanity. Thus circumstanced, to remove him from the quiet and contentment of such a bondage, and to place him amidst the tumults and vicissitudes of freedom, were but to impose upon him the exchange of great comparative happiness, for much of positive misery and distress.
From what has been said you will perceive that to do justice to the merit of Mr. Dougan, would require a far more able pen. His humane and liberal conduct does him infinite honor; while the richness of the estate and the happiness of the slaves loudly proclaim his attentive concern. We were pleased with all around us, but to witness so happy a state of slavery gave us peculiar delight.
The cottages and little gardens of the negroes exhibited a degree of neatness, and of plenty, that might be envied by free-born Britons, not of the poorest class. The huts of Ireland, Scotland, France, Germany, nay, many, even of England itself, bear no comparison with these. In impulsive delight I ran into many of them, surprizing the slaves with an unexpected visit, and, verily, I say the peasantry of Europe might envy these dwellings of slavery. They mostly consist
of a comfortable sitting room, and a neat, well-furnished bed room. In one I observed a high bedstead, according to the present European fashion, with deep mattresses, all neatly made up, and covered with a clean white counterpane; the bed-posts, drawers, and chairs bearing the high polish of well-rubbed mahogany. I felt a desire to pillow my head in this hut for the night, it not having fallen to my lot, since I left England, to repose on so inviting a couch. The value of the whole was tenfold augmented by the contented slaves being able to say — "all this we feel to be our own."
Too often in regarding the countenance of a slave, it may be observed that
"Dark melancholy fits, and round her throws
A death-like silence, and a dread repose."
[slightly misquoted from Alexander Pope's "
Eloisa to Abelard
but throughout Mr. Dougan's happy gang the more striking features are those of mirth and glee; for, here, the merry dance and jovial song prevail, and all are votaries to joy and harmony.
Before the doors of the huts, and around these peaceful dwellings were seen great numbers of pigs, and poultry, which the slaves are allowed to raise for their own profit; and from the flock, thus bred in the negro yard, the master usually purchases the provisions of his table, paying to the negroes the common price for which they would sell at the market.
The conduct of Mr. Osborn to his slaves, and, indeed, of many others I might mention, is also very highly commendable. The negroes at Arcadia have much cause of contentment; their happiness and welfare being guarded with a parental care. Were
all masters kind and humane as Mr. Dougan, and his neighbour, slavery might have few enemies; and the peasants of Europe, amidst their boasted freedom, might sigh, in vain, for the happiness enjoyed by slaves!"
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